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Department of Physiology and Membrane Biology

Department of Physiology and Membrane Biology

Keith Baar, Ph.D.

Keith Baar, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor
174 Briggs Hall
Davis Campus
(530) 752-3367

Research Interests

Dr Baar’s research is focused on determining the molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological and functional adaptations of muscle to exercise. To delve deeper into the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of exercise, Keith’s lab is currently engineering muscle tissue outside the body with a particular interest in applying this model towards understanding muscle physiology and function. His recent work has used this model to show that the physiologic differences between fast and slow muscles can be retained in muscles engineered in vitro and has also used machines to alter muscle phenotype using different patterns of electrical stimulation. He is now using these techniques to study the effect of genetic manipulation on muscle function in an attempt to identify genes that could be targeted to improve performance or treat obesity, diabetes, and frailty.

For more information, please visit: The Functional Molecular Biology Lab


Representative Publications

2013  Philp, A., M.G. MacKenzie, M.Y. Belew, M.C. Towler, A. Corstorphine, A. Papalamprou, D. G. Hardie, and K. Baar. Glycogen Content Regulates Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor-∂ (PPAR-∂) Activity in Rat Skeletal Muscle. PLOS ONE 2013 Oct 17;8(10):e77200.

2013  Hwee D.T., L.M. Baehr, A. Philp, K. Baar, and S.C. Bodine. Maintenance of muscle mass and load-induced growth in Muscle RING Finger 1 null mice with age. Aging Cell. 2013. EPub.

2013  Mackenzie, M.G., D.L. Hamilton, M. Pepin, A. Patton, and K. Baar. Inhibition of Myostatin Signaling through Notch Activation following Acute Resistance Exercise. PLoS One. 2013 Jul 2;8(7):e68743.

2012  Timmons, J.A., K. Baar, P. Davidsen, and P.J. Atherton. Is irisin a human exercise gene? Nature. 2012 488(7413): E9-10

2012  Hagerty, P., A. Lee, S. Calve, C.A. Lee, M. Vidal, and K. Baar. The effect of growth factors on both collagen synthesis and tensile strength of engineered human ligaments. Biomaterials. 2012 Sep;33(27):6355-61.

2012  Churchward-Venne, T.A., N.A. Burd, C.J. Mitchell, D.W. West, A. Philp, G.R. Marcotte, S.K. Baker, K. Baar, and S.M. Phillips. Supplementation of a suboptimal protein dose with leucine or essential amino acids: effects on myofibrillar protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in men. J Physiol. 2012 Jun 1;590(Pt 11):2751-65.

2012  Park, S.J., F. Ahmad, A. Philp, K. Baar, T. Williams, H. Luo, H. Ke, H. Rehmann, R. Taussig, A.L. Brown, M.K. Kim, M.A. Beaven, A.B. Burgin, V. Manganiello, J.H. Chung. Resveratrol ameliorates aging-related metabolic phenotypes by inhibiting cAMP phosphodiesterases. Cell. 2012 Feb 3;148(3):421-33.

2012  Khodabukus, A., and K. Baar. Defined electrical stimulation emphasizing excitability for the development and testing of engineered skeletal muscle. Tissue Eng Part C Methods. 2012 May;18(5):349-57.

2012  Paxton J.Z., P. Hagerty, J.J. Andrick, and K. Baar. Optimizing an intermittent stretch paradigm using ERK1/2 phosphorylation results in increased collagen synthesis in engineered ligaments. Tissue Eng Part A. 2012 Feb;18(3-4):277-84.

2011  Schenk S., C.E. McCurdy, A. Philp, M.Z. Chen, M.J. Holliday, G.K. Bandyopadhyay, O. Osborn, K. Baar, and J.M. Olefsky. Sirt1 enhances skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in mice during caloric restriction. J Clin Invest. 2011 Nov 1;121(11):4281-8.

2011  Philp, A., M.Y. Belew, A. Evans, D. Pham, I. Sivia, A. Chen, S. Schenk, and K. Baar. The PGC-1a related co-activator (PRC) promotes mitochondrial and myogenic adaptations in C2C12 myotubes. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011 Oct;301(4):R864-72.

2011  Philp, A., A. Chen, D. Lan, G.A. Meyer, A.N. Murphy, A.E. Knapp, I.M. Olfert, C.E. McCurdy, G.R. Marcotte, M.C. Hogan, K. Baar, and S. Schenk. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) deacetylase activity is not required for mitochondrial biogenesis or peroxisome proliferator activated receptor g coactivator-1a (PGC-1a) deacetylation following endurance exercise. J Biol Chem. 2011 Sep 2;286(35):30561-70.

2011  Breen, L., A. Philp, O.C. Witard, S.R. Jackman, A. Selby, K. Smith, K. Baar, and K.D. Tipton. The influence of carbohydrate-protein co-ingestion following endurance exercise on myofibrillar and mitochondrial protein synthesis. J Physiol. 2011 Aug 15;589(Pt 16):4011-25.

2011  Deldicque L., L. Bertrand, A. Patton, M. Francaux, and K. Baar. ER Stress Induces Anabolic Resistance in Muscle Cells through PKB-Induced Blockade of mTORC1. PLoS ONE 2011 6(6): e20993.

2011  Preston, R.S., A. Philp, T. Claesens, E.A. Dunlop, L. Gijezen, K.T. Harper, T. Brinkhuizen, D.M. Davies, S.S. Land, K. Baar, M. van Steensel and A.R. Tee. Absence of the Birt-Hogg-Dubé gene product is associated with increased Hypoxia Inducible Factor transcriptional activity and a loss of metabolic flexibility. Oncogene, 2011 Mar 10;30(10):1159-73.

2010  Hamilton D.L., A. Philp, M.G. MacKenzie, and K. Baar. A limited role for PI(3,4,5)P3 regulation in controlling skeletal muscle mass in response to resistance exercise. PLoS One. 2010 Jul 16;5(7):e11624.

2010  Paxton J.Z., L.M. Grover, and K. Baar. Engineering an In Vitro Model of a Functional Ligament from Bone to Bone. Tissue Eng Part A. 2010 Nov;16(11):3515-25.

2010  Deldicque L, P.D. Cani, A. Philp, J.M. Raymackers, P.J. Meakin, M.L. Ashford, N.M. Delzenne, M. Francaux, and K. Baar. The unfolded protein response is activated in skeletal muscle by high-fat feeding: potential role in the down-regulation of protein synthesis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Nov;299(5):E695-705.

2010  Bayer M.L., C.Y. Yeung, K.E. Kadler, K. Qvortrup, K. Baar, R.B. Svensson, S.P. Magnusson, M. Krogsgaard, M. Koch M, and M. Kjaer. The initiation of embryonic-like collagen fibrillogenesis by adult human tendon fibroblasts when cultured under tension. Biomaterials. 2010 Jun;31(18):4889-97.

2010  Hulston, C.J., M.C. Venables, C.H. Mann, C. Martin, A. Philp, K. Baar, and A.E. Jeukendrup. Training with low muscle glycogen enhances adaptations in fat metabolism in well-trained cyclists. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 Nov;42(11):2046-55.

2009  Khodabukus, A., and K. Baar. Regulating Fibrinolysis to Engineer Skeletal Muscle from the C2C12 Cell Line. Tissue Eng Part C Methods. 2009 Sep;15(3):501-11.

2009  MacKenzie, M.G., D.L. Hamilton, J.T. Murray, P.M. Taylor, and K. Baar. mVps34 is activated following high-resistance contractions. J Physiol. 2009 Jan 15;587(Pt 1):253-60.

2009  Paxton, J.Z., K. Donnelly, R.P. Keatch, and K. Baar. Engineering the Bone-Ligament Interface Using Polyethylene Glycol Diacrylate Incorporated with Hydroxyapatite. Tissue Eng Part A. 2009 Jun;15(6):1201-9.

2008  Kapacee, Z., S.H. Richardson, Y. Lu, T. Starborg, D.F. Holmes, K. Baar, and K.E. Kadler. Tension is required for fibripositor formation. Matrix Biology, 2008 27:371–375.

2008  McGee, S.L., K.J. Mustard, D.G. Hardie, and K. Baar. Normal Hypertrophy Accompanied by Phosphoryation and Activation of AMPK-α1 Following Overload in LKB1 Knockout Mice. J Physiol. 2008 Mar 15;586(6):1731-41.

2007  Cuthbertson D.J., J. Babraj, G.P. Leese, K. Baar, K.J.W. Mustard, K. Smith, C. Sutherland, D.G. Hardie, and M.J. Rennie. AICAR acutely stimulates skeletal muscle glucose uptake in healthy men. Diabetes. 2007 Aug;56(8):2078-84.

2007  Timmons J.A., K. Wennmalm, O. Larsson, T.B. Walden, T. Lassmann, N. Petrovic, D.L. Hamilton, R.E. Gimeno, C. Wahlestedt, K. Baar, J. Nedergaard, and B. Cannon. Myogenic gene expression signature establishes that brown and white adipocytes originate from distinct cell lineages. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Mar 13;104(11):4401-6.

2007  Arruda E.M., K. Mundy, S. Calve,,and K. Baar. Denervation does not change the ratio of collagen I and collagen III mRNA in the extracellular matrix of muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Feb;292(2):R983-7.

2006  Arruda EM, Calve S, Dennis RG, Mundy K, Baar K. Regional variation of tibialis anterior tendon mechanics is lost following denervation. J Appl Physiol. 2006 Oct;101(4):1113-7.

2006  Huang YC, Dennis RG, Baar K. Cultured slow vs. fast skeletal muscle cells differ in physiology and responsiveness to stimulation. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2006 Jul;291(1):C11-7.

2005  Hecker, L., K. Baar, and K.N. Bitar. Development of a 3-Dimensional Physiological Model of the Internal Anal Sphincter Bioengineered in-vitro from Isolated Smooth Muscle Cells. Amer. J. Physiol.: Gastrointest Liver Physiol, 2005 Aug;289: G188-G196.

2005  Baar, K., R. Birla, M.O. Boluyt, G.H. Borschel, E.M. Arruda, and R.G. Dennis. Heart muscle by design: self-organization of rat cardiac cells into contractile 3-D cardiac tissue. FASEB J. 2005 Feb;19(2):275-7.

2005  Huang, Y-C, R.G. Dennis, and K. Baar. Rapid formation of functional muscle in vitro using fibrin gels. Feb 2005; 98: 706 - 713.

2004  Calve, S.C., R.G. Dennis, P.E. Kosnik II, K. Baar, K. Grosh and E.M. Arruda. Engineering of functional tendon. Tissue Engineering 2004 10(5/6): p. 755-761.

2003  Baar, K., Z. Song, C.F. Semenkovich, T.E. Jones, D.H. Han, L.A. Nolte, E.O. Ojuka, M. Chen, and J.O. Holloszy. Overexpression of nuclear respiratory factor 1 increases muscle glucose transport capacity. FASEB J. 2003 17(12): p. 1666-1673.

2002  Baar, K., A.R. Wende, T.E. Jones, M. Marison, L.A. Nolte, M. Chen, D.P. Kelly, and J.O. Holloszy. Adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise: rapid increase in the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1. FASEB J. 2002 16: 1879-1886.

2002  Chen, Y.W., G. Nader, K. Baar, M. Fedele, E.P. Hoffman, and K.A. Esser. Response of muscle to acute resistance exercise defined by transcriptional and translational profiling. J. of Physiol. 2002 Nov 15;545(Pt 1):27-41.

2001  Baar, K., C. E. Torgan, W. E. Kraus, and K. A. Esser. Autocrine phosphorylation of the 70 KDa S6 protein kinase in response to acute stretch in C2C12 myotubes. Mol. Cell Biol. Res. Comm. 2001: 76-80.

1999  Baar, K., and K. A. Esser. Activation of p70S6k correlates with skeletal muscle hypertrophy in the rat. Amer. J. Physiol. 1999, 276 (Cell Physiol. 45): C120-C127.