National Eye Institute
Graduate Group Affiliations
Department and Center Affiliations
Center for Neuroscience
Center for Visual Sciences
Society for Neuroscience
Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
The first steps in vision begin in the photoreceptors of the retina, which transduce photons of light into electrical signals. Our lab examines the biochemical and biophysical properties of signaling in photoreceptors, as well as the consequences of defective signaling on visual performance.
We are also trying to understand why and how photoreceptors die, which is the ultimate leading cause of blindness in humans. Photoreceptor degeneration, like all neurodegenerative diseases, leads to microglial activation and neuroinflammation. We are trying to understand the regulation of neuroinflammation, its relationship to neovascularization, and its helpful vs harmful consequences for perserving neuronal and synaptic function.
For more information, please visit:
Burns Lab website
College of Biological Sciences Faculty Page
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Biochemistry, Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Signal Transduction and Gene Regulation
Cellular Responses to Toxins and Stress
Structural and Mechanistic Biochemistry
2014 Levine, E.S., Zam, A., Zhang, P., Pechko, A., Wang, X., FitzGerald, P., Pugh, Jr., E.N., Zawadzki, R. and Burns, M.E. (2014). Rapid light-induced migration of retinal microglia in mice lacking Arrestin-1. Vision Res., 102, 71-9.
2014 Arshavsky, V.Y., and Burns, M.E. (2014). Current understanding of signal amplification in phototransduction. Cellular Logistics 4, e29390; http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/cl.29390.
2014 Kessler, C., Tillman, M., Burns, M.E., and Pugh, E.N., Jr. (2014). Rapid regeneration of rod photoreceptor surface rhodopsin measured with the early receptor potential in vivo. J. Physiol. 592, 2785-97.
2013 nbsp;Long, J.H., Arshavsky, V.Y. and Burns, M.E. (2013). Absence of synaptic regulation by phosducin in retinal slices. Plos One 8, e83970.
2012 Gross, O.P., Pugh, Jr. E.N. and Burns, M.E. Calcium feedback to cGMP synthesis more strongly attenuates single photon responses driven by long rhodopsin lifetimes. Neuron 76, 370–382.
2012 Gross, O.P., Pugh, Jr. E.N. and Burns, M.E. Spatiotemporal cGMP dynamics in living mouse rods. Biophys. J. 102, 1775-1784.
2011 Arshavsky, V.I. and Burns, M.E. Photoreceptor signaling: supporting vision across a wide range of light intensities. J. Biol. Chem. 287, 1620-6.
2010 Burns, M.E. and Pugh, Jr. E.N. Lessons from photoreceptors: Turning off G protein signaling in living cells. Physiology 25, 72-84.
2010 Gross, O.P. and Burns, M.E. Arrestin expression controls the duration of rhodopsin lifetime in intact rods. J. Neurosci. 30, 3450-7.
2010 Burns, M.E. Deactivation mechanisms of rod phototransduction: The Cogan Lecture. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 51, 1282-8.
2009 Burns, M.E. and Pugh, Jr. E.N. RGS9 concentration matters in rod phototransduction. Biophysical J. 97, 1538-1547.
2009 Song, X., Vishnivetskiy, S.A., Gross, O.P., Emelianoff, K., Mendez, A., Chen, J., Gurevich, E.V., Burns*, M.E., and Gurevich*, V.V. Enhanced arrestin mutant facilitates photoresponse recovery and protects rod photoreceptors in the absence of rhodopsin phosphorylation. Curr. Biol. 19, 700-5.
2008 Martemyanov, K.A., Krispel, C.M., Lishko, P.V., Yoo, P.J., Burns*, M.E. and Arshavsky, V.Y. Functional comparison of RGS9 splice isoforms in a living cell. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 105, 20988-20933.
2006 Krispel, C.K., Chen, D., Chen, Y-J., Melling, N., Martemyanov, K.A., Quillinan, N., Arshavsky, V.Y., Wensel, T.G., Chen, C.-K., and Burns, M.E. RGS expression rate-limits recovery of rod photoresponses. Neuron 51, 409-416.
Cellular neurophysiology; signal transduction mechanisms
NSC 221 Cellular Neuroscience
NSC 290 Retina Journal Club
NSC 270 Grant Writing in the Biomedical Sciences
Teaching and Research Awards
- Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellow
- E. Matilda Ziegler Foundation Award
- Cogan Award (Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology)
- Outstanding Graduate Mentor in Neuroscience