Cassandra A. Lee, M.D.
Orthopaedic Surgery - Sports Medicine
- Assistant Professor
Philosophy of Care
I believe in working together as partners with my patients. My job is to educate my patients about their sports injuries and to help guide them through their rehabilitation process, whether it be for operative or nonoperative management.
Dr. Lee's clinical interests relate to the diagnosis and management of patients who have sustained sports-related orthopaedic injuries, with emphasis on the knee and shoulder problems.
Her surgical specialties include ligament reconstruction, cartilage preservation (such as osteochondral allograft and autologous chondrocyte implantation), meniscal transplantation and multiligamentous knee reconstruction.
Dr. Lee also specialize in arthroscopic shoulder procedures such as instability and rotator cuff repairs, as well as open-shoulder reconstruction procedures.
Dr. Lee currently serves as an official team physician for the Sacramento Republic FC professional men's soccer team.
Dr. Lee's research interests include the study of cartilage regeneration and ligament biology, and how they translate to clinical outcomes.
Orthopaedic Surgery - Sports Medicine
M.D., Boston University School of Medicine, Boston MA 2001
B.A., Boston University, Boston MA 1996
Orthopaedic Surgery, North Carolina Baptist Hospital, Winston Salem NC 2004-2008
Sports Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis MO 2008-2009
American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery, Diplomate, 2011
American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery-Sports Medicine, 2012
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
American Orthopaedic Society of Sports Medicine
International Cartilage Repair Society
Western Orthopaedic Association
Honors and Awards
Zimmer-AOA Resident Leadership Forum, 2006
OREF Clinician Scientist Development Program, 2006
Limb Lengthening and Reconstruction Society Resident Best paper Award, 2006
Arthroscopy Association of North America 24th Annual Meeting Resident Basic Science Research Award, 2005
Select Recent Publications
Hagerty P, Lee A, Calve S, Lee CA, Vidal M, Baar K. The effect of growth factors on both collagen synthesis and tensile strength of engineered human ligaments. Biomaterials, 2012.
Kim YM, Lee CA, Matava MJ. Clinical results of arthroscopic single-bundle transtibial posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a systematic review. Am J Sports Med. 2011 Feb;39(2):425-34. Epub 2010 Aug 11.
Moraiti CO, Stergiou N, Ristanis S, Vasiliadis HS, Patras K, Lee C, Georgoulis AD. The effect of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction on stride-to-stride variability. Arthroscopy. 2009 Jul;25(7):742-9.
Ma J, Shen J, Garrett JP, Lee CA, Li Z, Elsaidi GA, Ritting A, Hick J, Tan KH, Smith TL, Smith BP, Koman LA. Gene expression of myogenic regulatory factors, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits, and GAP-43 in skeletal muscle following denervation in a rat model. J Orthop Res 2007;2525(11):1498-1505.
Lee C, Ma J, Deal DN, Smith BP, Koman LA, Smith TL, Shilt JS. Neuromuscular recovery after distraction osteogenesis at different frequencies in a rabbit model. J Pediatr Orthop. 2006 Sep-Oct;26(5):628-33.
Shen J, Ma J, Lee C, Smith BP, Smith TL, Tan KH, Koman LA. How muscles recover from paresis and atrophy after intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin A: Study in juvenile rats. J Orthop Res 2006;24(5):1128-1135.
Farmer JM, Lee CA, Curl WW, Martin DF, Kortesis B, Poehling GG. Initial biomechanical properties of staple-anchor Achilles tendon allograft and interference screw bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft fixation for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in a cadaveric model. Arthroscopy. 2006 Oct;22(10):1040-5.
Poehling GG, Curl WW, Lee CA, Ginn TA, Rushing JT, Naughton MJ, Holden MB, Martin DF, Smith BP. Analysis of Outcomes of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair with 5-Year Follow-up: Allograft Versus Autograft. Arthroscopy. 2005 July; 21(7):774-785.
DuRaine, GD, Arzi, B, Lee, JK, Lee, CA, Responte, DJ, Hu, JC, Athanasiou, KA. Biomechanical evaluation of suture-holding properties of native and tissue-engineered articular cartilage. Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology. 2014 May 22. [Epub ahead of print]
Christiansen BA, Anderson MJ, Lee CA, Williams JC, Yik JH, Haudenschild DR. Musculoskeletal changes following non-invasive knee injury using a novel mouse model of post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2012 Apr 21. [Epub ahead of print]