Neuropathology is a sub-specialty of anatomic pathology that involves diagnosis of central nervous system and neuromuscular disorders by pathologic examination of central and peripheral nervous system tissues and skeletal muscle. These tissues are obtained either by surgical biopsy or autopsy and studies are pursued by light and/or electron microscopy, enzyme histochenistry, biochemistry, and immunohistochemistry. Neuropathologic diagnoses are particularly important to specialists in the fields of neurology, neurosurgery, neuro-oncology and, for neuromuscular disorders, physical medicine. Initially, neuropathology developed as an outgrowth of the clinical neurosciences (neurology, neurosurgery, psychiatry). The increasing use of tumor cell and muscle histochemistry over recent decades has required greater specialization. The clinical correlates of neuropathologic diagnoses remain important, however, to interpret the pathologic findings. For this reason, clinical information should be made available for selection of special studies and interpretation of findings in each case subjected to central nervous system, peripheral nerve or muscle biopsy or for each autopsy performed for a neurologic disorder.