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Clinical and Translational Science Center

Clinical and Translational Science Center

Center for Reducing Health Disparities

Resource List - National Data

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In Focus: An In-depth Analysis of Emerging Issues in Health in Schools. Children of Immigrant Families.
Summary of The Future of Children. Volume 14, Number 2. Summer 2004.
Though children in immigrant families experience higher poverty and hardship rates, they are less likely to receive public assistance, including Medicaid, than other low-income children—children of immigrants are about half as likely to participate in Medicaid, a gap that has widened in recent years.  They are nearly twice as likely to lack health insurance, and they are more than four times as likely to live in crowded housing. 

The Future of Children. Children of Immigrant Families. 
Volume 14 – Number 2. The David and Lucile Packard Foundation. Summer 2004.
Regardless of how one might feel about immigration, there is no turning back the clock on the children of immigrants already living here, most of whom are U.S. citizens.  In the report, the strengths and challenges that set children of immigrant families apart from the mainstream population are explored. For example, compared with children of U.S.-born parents, children of immigrants are more likely to be born healthier and to live with both parents. They also are more likely to be living in poverty and to be without health insurance. Although indicators of child well-being vary widely based on the family’s country of origin, the overall trends are dominated by the large number of immigrants from Mexico, Asia, Central America, and the Caribbean. The report describes the circumstances and needs of two groups in particular—Latinos and Southeast Asians.

Who Is at Greatest Risk for Receiving Poor-Quality Health Care? 
N Engl J Med. Asch S, Kerr E, Keesey J, et al. 2006;354:1147-56.
Using medical records and telephone interviews of a random sample of people from 12 communities, quality of care was assessed by those who had made at least one visit to a health care provider in the past two years.  The authors estimated the rate at which members of different sociodemographic subgroups (sex, age, race/ethnic group, education, household income, health insurance) received recommended care.  The study found that on average, all participants received 55% of recommended care.  Women had higher scores than men; participants below 31 years of age had higher scores than those over the age of 64; blacks and Hispanics had higher scores than whites; those with incomes over $50k had higher scores than those with incomes of less than $15k.  Quality-improvement programs that focus solely on reducing disparities among sociodemographic subgroups may miss larger opportunities to improve care.

Health Centers’ Role in Reducing Health Disparities among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. 
January 2005.
This Fact Sheet talks about health disparities among AAPI populations.  It found that this population has a lack of access to regular care; less satisfaction with care; fewer preventive services; poorer quality care; and higher disease incidence.

American Heart Association Population Fact Sheets. 
2008 Update on website.
Statistics for cardiovascular diseases for: African Americans, American Indians and Native Alaskans, Asian-Pacific Islanders, Baby Boomers, Hispanics-Latinos, International death rates and disease stats, Men, Older Americans, Whites, Women, and Youth.

Reducing Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities: Estimating the Impact of High Health Center Penetration in Low-Income Communities. 
Center for Health Services Research and Policy, The George Washington University Medical Center. September 2003.
The health disparities literature suggests that although the lack of health insurance is the most basic barrier to health care, improved access to clinically appropriate care is key, particularly in the case of minority and low-income populations where the health risks are greatest. This study examines the relationship between health center penetration into medically underserved communities and the reduction of state level health disparities.  The results of the analysis showed that greater levels of health center penetration (i.e., proportion of low-income individuals served) were associated with significant and positive reductions in minority health disparities. In the case of black/white health disparities, the report found that penetration was significantly associated with a narrowing of the health disparities gap in the case of total death rate and prenatal care. The infant mortality gap also narrowed as penetration increased, although the reduction was not as great. In the case of Hispanic/white disparities, health center penetration was significantly associated with health disparity reductions in the case of the tuberculosis case rate and prenatal care.

Unequal Treatment: What Healthcare Providers Need to Know About Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Healthcare. 
Report Brief. Institute of Medicine. March 2002.
Many recent news reports indicate that racial and ethnic minorities receive lower quality healthcare than whites, even when they are insured to the same degree and when other healthcare access-related factors, such as the ability to pay for care, are the same.  It discusses what the sources of health care disparities are and what healthcare providers can do to help eliminate disparities in care. Given that stereotypes, bias, and clinical uncertainty may influence clinicians’ diagnostic and treatment decisions, education may be one of the most important tools as part of an overall strategy to eliminate healthcare disparities. Healthcare providers should be made aware of racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare, and the fact that these disparities exist, often despite providers’ best intentions.

Key Health and Health Care Indicators by Race/Ethnicity and State. 
The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. www.statehealthfacts.org. April 2007.
This is a two-page report listing health care indictors by race/ethnicity for all 50 states.  The health care indicators are: infant mortality rate, diabetes-related mortality rate, annual AIDS case rate, percent living in poverty, percent with Medicaid, and percent uninsured.

Key Facts: Race, Ethnicity & Medical Care.  
The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation.  January 2007.
This is a quick reference guide to information on health care disparities across the United States.  The guide is organized into sections that include an overview of demographic characteristics, health measures stratified by socioeconomic status, patterns of health insurance coverage, data for preventive and primary care, data for specific medical conditions: diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and asthma, and findings from the 2005 National Healthcare Disparities Report that tracks changes in health care disparities over time.

National Healthcare Disparities Report. 
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 2006.
In the 2006 NHDR, four key themes in national healthcare are highlighted: disparities remain prevalent, some disparities are diminishing while other are increasing, opportunities for reducing disparities remain, and information about disparities is improving, but gaps still exist.  For most core measures, Blacks (73%), and Hispanics (77%), and poor people (71%) received worse quality care than their reference groups.  For most measures for poor people (67%), disparities were increasing; for most measures for minorities, significant changes in disparities were not observed.  Increasing disparities were especially prevalent in chronic disease management: Blacks had 90% more lower extremity amputations from diabetes; Asians were restrained in nursing homes 46% more often; American Indians and Alaska Natives were hospitalized from home health care 15% more often; Hispanics had 63% more pediatric asthma hospitalizations; and poor people were 37% less likely to receive recommended diabetes care.

National Healthcare Disparities Report 2007. 
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. February 2008.
Report: 
Slideshow: 
The National Healthcare Disparities Report (NHDR) describes the quality and access to care for various subgroups in the US and tracks the country’s progress over time.  The number of measures on which disparities have gotten significantly worse or have remained unchanged since the first NHDR (2000-2001 data), is higher than the number of measures on which they have gotten significantly better for Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians and Alaskan Natives, Asians, and poor populations.  The biggest disparities where there has been no improvement:
• Blacks had a rate of new AIDS cases 10 times higher than Whites
• Asian adults age 65 and over were 50% more likely than Whites to lack immunization against pneumonia
• American Indians and Alaska Natives were twice as likely to lack prenatal care in the first trimester as Whites
• Hispanics had a rate of new AIDS cases over 3.5 times higher than that of non-Hispanic Whites
• Poor children were over 28% more likely than high income children to experience poor communication with their health care providers.

Office of the Surgeon General, Eliminating Health Disparities website.
The OSG website contains many resources related to health disparities and contains links to resources for specific populations, including youth, agricultural/migrant workers, ethnic and racial minorities, gays and lesbians, homeless, immigrants and refugees, rural health, etc.

HealthFinder.gov, US Department of Health and Human Services website.
Health Finder: 
Minority Health: 
Health Disparities: 
This website contains a plethora of health information and resources on a wide range of health topics from over 1,600 government and non-profit organizations.  There are also specific categories for Minority Health, Health Disparities, and health information for different ethnic/racial groups.

American Public Health Association Health Disparities Database.This website contains a searchable database that contains projects and interventions that have been submitted by members of the public health community since 2003.  Some of the programs are still in existence while others have been discontinued; however, APHA contains to list all programs that have been submitted in order to provide a learning tool for future health disparities initiatives.