Richard L. Kravitz, M.D., M.S.P.H.
Professor and Co-vice Chair of Research,
Department of Internal Medicine
Former Director, CHPR
Department of Internal Medicine
University of California, Davis
Medical Center
2400 PSSB
Sacramento, CA 95817
Phone (916) 734-1248


Richard L. Kravitz has research interests centering on the causes and consequences of physician behavior. He has examined the participation of physicians and nurses in strikes and work actions, the impact of the malpractice system on defensive medical practices, and the effect of managed care on health services utilization and quality.

Additionally, he has examined how clinical opinion leaders can be identified, how physicians respond to patients' requests for services, and how direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs influences physician decision making.

A Fellow of the Association for Health services Research, Dr. Kravitz is also co-Editor in Chief of the Journal of General Internal Medicine.  He was appointed Director of the UC Davis Center for Healthcare Policy and Research in 1996 and served in that capacity for ten years. Dr. Kravitz also serves as co-Chair for research in the Department of Internal Medicine.

Recent Publications

Screening mammography beliefs and recommendations: a web-based survey of primary care physicians.  Yasmeen S, Romano PS, Tancredi DJ, Saito NH, Rainwater J, Kravitz RL.  BMC Health Serv Res. 2012 Feb 6;12(1):32. [Epub ahead of print]

Impact of public reporting of coronary artery bypass graft surgery performance data on market share, mortality, and patient selection.  Romano PS, Marcin JP, Dai JJ, Yang XD, Kravitz RL, Rocke DM, Dharmar M, Li Z.  Med Care. 2011 Dec;49(12):1118-25.

Lingering questions and doubts: online information-seeking of support forum members following their medical visits.  Bell RA, Hu X, Orrange SE, Kravitz RL.  Patient Educ Couns. 2011 Dec;85(3):525-8. Epub 2011 Feb 18.

Associations between pain control self-efficacy, self-efficacy for communicating with physicians, and subsequent pain severity among cancer patients.  Jerant A, Franks P, Kravitz RL.  Patient Educ Couns. 2011 Nov;85(2):275-80. Epub 2010 Dec 15.

Suffering in silence: reasons for not disclosing depression in primary care.  Bell RA, Franks P, Duberstein PR, Epstein RM, Feldman MD, Garcia EF, Kravitz RL.  Ann Fam Med. 2011 Sep-Oct;9(5):439-46.

An academic-marketing collaborative to promote depression care: A tale of two cultures.  Kravitz RL, Epstein RM, Bell RA, Rochlen AB, Duberstein P, Riby CH, Caccamo AF, Slee CK, Cipri CS, Paterniti DA.  Patient Educ Couns. 2011 Aug 20. [Epub ahead of print]

N-of-1 trials in the medical literature: a systematic review.  Gabler NB, Duan N, Vohra S, Kravitz RL.  Med Care. 2011 Aug;49(8):761-8. Review.

Annual work hours across physician specialties.  Leigh JP, Tancredi D, Jerant A, Kravitz RL.  Arch Intern Med. 2011 Jul 11;171(13):1211-3. No abstract available.

Cancer Health Empowerment for Living without Pain (Ca-HELP): effects of a tailored education and coaching intervention on pain and impairment.  Kravitz RL, Tancredi DJ, Grennan T, Kalauokalani D, Street RL Jr, Slee CK, Wun T, Oliver JW, Lorig K, Franks P.  Pain. 2011 Jul;152(7):1572-82. Epub 2011 Mar 24.

Role of the gender-linked norm of toughness in the decision to engage in treatment for depression.  O'Loughlin RE, Duberstein PR, Veazie PJ, Bell RA, Rochlen AB, Fernandez y Garcia E, Kravitz RL.  Psychiatr Serv. 2011 Jul;62(7):740-6.

Developing Personal Values: Trainees' Attitudes Toward Strikes by Health Care Providers. Li ST, Srinivasan M, Der-Martirosian C, Kravitz RL, Wilkes MS. Acad Med. 2011 Mar 23. [Epub ahead of print]

Cancer Health Empowerment for Living without Pain (Ca-HELP): effects of a tailored education and coaching intervention on pain and impairment. Kravitz RL, Tancredi DJ, Grennan T, Kalauokalani D, Street RL Jr, Slee CK, Wun T, Oliver JW, Lorig K, Franks P. Pain. 2011 Mar 23. [Epub ahead of print]
What Do Doctors Say When Prescribing Medications?: An Examination of Medical Recommendations From a Communication Perspective. Feng B, Bell RA, Jerant AF, Kravitz RL.  Health Commun. 2011 Mar 10:1-11. [Epub ahead of print]
Lingering questions and doubts: Online information-seeking of support forum members following their medical visits. Bell RA, Hu X, Orrange SE, Kravitz RL. Patient Educ Couns. 2011 Feb 18. [Epub ahead of print]
Third-person effects and direct-to-consumer advertisements for antidepressants. Taylor LD, Bell RA, Kravitz RL. Depress Anxiety. 2011 Feb;28(2):160-5. doi: 10.1002/da.20756. Epub 2010 Nov 3.
Relational barriers to depression help-seeking in primary care. Kravitz RL, Paterniti DA, Epstein RM, Rochlen AB, Bell RA, Cipri C, Fernandez Y Garcia E, Feldman MD, Duberstein P. Patient Educ Couns. 2010 Jun 4. [Epub ahead of print]

Editorial peer reviewers' recommendations at a general medical journal: are they reliable and do editors care? Kravitz RL, Franks P, Feldman MD, Gerrity M, Byrne C, Tierney WM. PLoS One. 2010 Apr 8;5(4):e10072.

Getting to "no": strategies primary care physicians use to deny patient requests. Paterniti DA, Fancher TL, Cipri CS, Timmermans S, Heritage J, Kravitz RL. Arch Intern Med. 2010 Feb 22;170(4):381-8.

Do antidepressant advertisements educate consumers and promote communication between patients with depression and their physicians? Bell RA, Taylor LD, Kravitz RL. Patient Educ Couns. 2010 Feb 20. [Epub ahead of print]

Encouraging patients with depressive symptoms to seek care: a mixed methods approach to message development. Bell RA, Paterniti DA, Azari R, Duberstein PR, Epstein RM, Rochlen AB, Johnson MD, Orrange SE, Slee C, Kravitz RL. Patient Educ Couns. 2010 Feb;78(2):198-205. Epub 2009 Aug 11.

A decade of controversy: balancing policy with evidence in the regulation of prescription drug advertising. Frosch DL, Grande D, Tarn DM, Kravitz RL. Am J Public Health. 2010 Jan;100(1):24-32.

Suicide inquiry in primary care: creating context, inquiring, and following up. Vannoy SD, Fancher T, Meltvedt C, Unützer J, Duberstein P, Kravitz RL. Ann Fam Med. 2010 Jan-Feb;8(1):33-9.

Dealing with heterogeneity of treatment effects: is the literature up to the challenge? Gabler NB, Duan N, Liao D, Elmore JG, Ganiats TG, Kravitz RL. Trials. 2009 Jun 19;10:43.

Barriers in Diagnosing and Treating Men With Depression: A Focus Group Report. Rochlen AB, Paterniti DA, Epstein RM, Duberstein P, Willeford L, Kravitz RL. Am J Mens Health. 2009 May 11. [Epub ahead of print]

Training residents to employ self-efficacy-enhancing interviewing techniques: randomized controlled trial of a standardized patient intervention. Jerant A, Kravitz RL, Azari R, White L, García JA, Vierra H, Virata MC, Franks P. J Gen Intern Med. 2009 May;24(5):606-13. Epub 2009 Mar 19.

Marketing therapeutic precision: Potential facilitators and barriers to adoption of n-of-1 trials. Kravitz RL, Paterniti DA, Hay MC, Subramanian S, Dean DE, Weisner T, Vohra S, Duan N. Contemp Clin Trials. 2009 Apr 16. [Epub ahead of print]

Survival enhancing indications for coronary artery bypass graft surgery in California. Li Z, Kravitz RL, Marcin JP, Romano PS, Rocke DM, Denton TA, Brindis RG, Dai J, Amsterdam EA. BMC Health Serv Res. 2008 Dec 16;8:257.
What ever happened to N-of-1 trials? Insiders' perspectives and a look to the future. Kravitz RL, Duan N, Niedzinski EJ, Hay MC, Subramanian SK, Weisner TS. Milbank Q. 2008 Dec;86(4):533-55.

Introduction: chronic medical conditions and depression--the view from primary care. Kravitz RL, Ford DE. American Journal of Medicine. 2008 Nov;121(11 Suppl 2):S1-7. No abstract available.

Physician personality characteristics and inquiry about mood symptoms in primary care. Duberstein PR, Chapman BP, Epstein RM, McCollumn KR, Kravitz RL. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2008 Nov;23(11):1791-5. Epub 2008 Sep 9.

Harnessing experience: exploring the gap between evidence-based medicine and clinical practice. Hay MC, Weisner TS, Subramanian S, Duan N, Niedzinski EJ, Kravitz RL. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. 2008 Oct;14(5):707-13. 

Beyond gatekeeping: enlisting patients as agents for quality and cost-containment. Kravitz RL. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2008 Oct;23(10):1722-3. No abstract available.
Patient-centered communication during primary care visits for depressive symptoms: what is the role of physician personality? Chapman BP, Duberstein PR, Epstein RM, Fiscella K, Kravitz RL. Medical Care 2008 Aug;46(8):806-12.

How much time does it take to prescribe a new medication? Tarn DM, Paterniti DA, Kravitz RL, Heritage J, Liu H, Kim S, Wenger NS. Patient Education and Counseling. 2008 Aug;72(2):311-9. Epub 2008 Apr 11.

Physicians' shared decision-making behaviors in depression care. Young HN, Bell RA, Epstein RM, Feldman MD, Kravitz RL. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2008 Jul 14;168(13):1404-8.

Physician counseling for hypertension: what do doctors really do? Bell RA, Kravitz RL. Patient Education and Counseling. 2008 Jul;72(1):115-21.

N-of-1 trials of expensive biological therapies: a third way? Kravitz RL, Duan N, White RH. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2008 May 26;168(10):1030-3.

How much time does it take to prescribe a new medication? Tarn DM, Paterniti DA, Kravitz RL, Heritage J, Liu H, Kim S, Wenger NS. Patient Education and Counseling. 2008 Apr 10 [Epub ahead of print]

Physician counseling for hypertension: What do doctors really do? Bell RA, Kravitz RL. Patient Education and Counseling. 2008 Mar 5 [Epub ahead of print]

The CABG surgery volume-outcome relationship: temporal trends and selection effects in California, 1998-2004. Marcin JP, Li Z, Kravitz RL, Dai JJ, Rocke DM, Romano PS. Health Services Research. 2008 Feb;43(1 Pt 1):174-92.

Factors affecting physicians' responses to patients' requests for antidepressants: focus group study. Tentler A, Silberman J, Paterniti DA, Kravitz RL, Epstein RM. Journal of General Intern Medicine. 2008 Jan;23(1):51-7. Epub 2007 Nov 7.

Primary care visit length, quality, and satisfaction for standardized patients with depression. Geraghty EM, Franks P, Kravitz RL. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2007 Dec;22(12):1641-7. Epub 2007 Oct 6.

Let's not talk about it: suicide inquiry in primary care. Feldman MD, Franks P, Duberstein PR, Vannoy S, Epstein R, Kravitz RL. Annals of Family Medicine. 2007 Sep-Oct;5(5):412-8.

Direct-to-Consumer Advertising of Prescription Drugs: Balancing Benefits and Risks, and a Way Forward Kravitz RL, Bell RA. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2007 Oct;82(4):360-2.

Practice Constraints, Behavioral Problems, and Dementia Care: Primary Care Physicians' Perspectives. Hinton L, Franz CE, Reddy G, Flores Y, Kravitz RL, Barker JC. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2007 Nov;22(11):1487-92. Epub 2007 Sep 7.

Diffusion of surgical techniques in early stage breast cancer: variables related to adoption and implementation of sentinel lymph node biopsy.  Vanderveen KA, Paterniti DA, Kravitz RL, Bold RJ. Ann Surg Oncol. 2007 May;14(5):1662-9. Epub 2007 Feb 7.

Effects of a tailored interactive multimedia computer program on determinants of colorectal cancer screening: a randomized controlled pilot study in physician offices. Jerant A, Kravitz RL, Rooney M, Amerson S, Kreuter M, Franks P. Patient Educ Couns. 2007 Apr;66(1):67-74. Epub 2006 Dec 6.

Ratings of physician communication by real and standardized patients. Fiscella K, Franks P, Srinivasan M, Kravitz RL, Epstein R. Ann Fam Med. 2007 Mar-Apr;5(2):151-8.

Exploring and validating patient concerns: relation to prescribing for depression. Epstein RM, Shields CG, Franks P, Meldrum SC, Feldman M, Kravitz RL. Ann Fam Med. 2007 Jan-Feb;5(1):21-8

Can patient coaching reduce racial/ethnic disparities in cancer pain control? Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Kalauokalani D, Franks P, Oliver JW, Meyers FJ, Kravitz RL. Pain Med. 2007 Jan-Feb;8(1):17-24.

Caught in the act? Prevalence, predictors, and consequences of physician detection of unannounced standardized patients. Franz CE, Epstein R, Miller KN, Brown A, Song J, Feldman M, Franks P, Kelly-Reif S, Kravitz RL. Health Serv Res. 2006 Dec;41(6):2290-302.

Do patient requests for antidepressants enhance or hinder physicians' evaluation of depression? A randomized controlled trial. Feldman MD, Franks P, Epstein RM, Franz CE, Kravitz RL. Med Care. 2006 Dec;44(12):1107-13.

Connoisseurs of care? Unannounced standardized patients' ratings of physicians. Srinivasan M, Franks P, Meredith LS, Fiscella K, Epstein RM, Kravitz RL. Med Care. 2006 Dec;44(12):1092-8.

Physician communication about the cost and acquisition of newly prescribed medications.
Tarn DM, Paterniti DA, Heritage J, Hays RD, Kravitz RL, Wenger NS.
Am J Manag Care. 2006 Nov;12(11):657-64

Public Research Files

N-of-1 Study Appendices
    A Third Way - Appendix A
    A Third Way - Random Effects Models